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Evaluation of Shrimp Disease 2019 and Shrimp Health Management

Evaluation of shrimp disease in 2019 are Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease AHPND / Vibriosis, Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV), White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), White Feces Diseases (WFD), and Enterocytozoon Hepatopenaei (EHP). Nationally, WSSV infections in all regions have decreased in 2019 compared to the previous year. The application to avoid a potential carrier, plankton stable, controlled organic material and number of vibrio, also improved immune system.

IMNV cases in Lampung in 2019 can be reduced with the application of a lower stocking density (100-150 shrimps/m2) and the replacement of more water (water flow system). While the case in East Java, IMNV many of the problems caused by unstable plankton and water quality.

EHP positive case in 2019 that attacked the shrimp with conditions largely show the value growth (Average Daily Gain) remains normal. The increase in cases occurred in West Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi.

Infection WFD across the region decreased in 2019 compared to previous years. Factors that could suppress this case is the application of mud and pond cleaning infected carrier. (Utari 2020)

Shrimp Health Management in facing disease challenges, is:

1. Bio-security

Set of practices that will reduce the possibility of introduction of pathogens and subsequent deployment from one place to another. Includes basic elements (physics, chemistry, and biology) to protect facilities / biota cultivation of certain infectious diseases.

Some of the Basic Bio-security measures, are:

  • Water filtration and disinfection.
  • Optimum water quality.
  • Disinfection of culture facilities.
  • Personnel hygiene.
  • Production uses of pathogen free or pathogen resistant stocks.
  • Proper feeding management and monitoring.
  • Shrimp health monitoring.

Benefits of Bio-security application, are:

  • Reduce risk of disease introduction.
  • Minimize the spread of farms into new territory.
  • Improving the health of the shrimp.
  • Protect economic investment – reputation.
  • Protect against new disease.
  • Protect human health – infectious zoonotic diseases and food safety.

Generally, the implementation of bio-security through the facilities of broodstock, hatchery, and Closed/ semi-closed aquaculture system.

2. Improving the environmental conditions.

The main factor is derived from the input of N and P in organic waters result of enrichment material. The need to dispose of the waste pile during the production process takes place contained in the pond bottom regularly and effectively.

In general, the technology integrated into the environmental control has been widely applied in the Closed and Semi-Closed systems, Lined ponds, as well as Re-circulation and integrations Aquaculture System (RAS).

3. Improve the condition of the host through good nutrition and immunostimulasi.

Prevention with application of a fish vaccine, probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic, using phytopharmaca, and immunostimulants.

4. Avoid exposure to the pathogen.

Efforts that can be made to avoid exposure to disease agents are:

  • The use of stem and fry certified Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR), Specific Pathogen Tolerant (SPT), as well as the All Pathogens Exposed (APE).

In the process, broodstock families are purposefully exposed to the outside world and all of the diseases that are prominent (WSSV, EHP, EMS, IMNV, and others). All of those that show the highest survival are kept and bred and the process is repeated.

In such facilities, bio-security is not a major concerns the animals have already been exposed. The major advantage of APE shrimp is that they have been bred to be tough in the outside world and in the conditions that are common in shrimp farms.

  • Perform quarantine according to international standards.
  • Disinfection of water regularly.
  • Destruction of fish or shrimp populations that are infected with the disease, after treatment is not possible again.

Disease has always been a challenge and with each new challenge should be followed by a positive change for sustainable shrimp aquaculture. (Sukenda 2020)

Source:

Utari, Heni Budi. 2020. Seminar of Outlook on Fish & Shrimp Disease in Indonesia – Challenges of New Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture in Indonesia. Animal Health Service – Technical Research and Development Division – PT. Central Proteina Prima.

Sukenda. 2020. Seminar of Outlook on Fish & Shrimp Disease in Indonesia – Fish Health Management. IPB University.