The use of high protein such effects:
Feed quality is determined from the following parameters namely energy produced, digestible protein, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and additives.
These parameters will affect the performance of the feed to the shrimp farming:
Feed quality does not mean that having a high protein, it depends on the protein feed, organic materials, as well as systems and heterotroph-autotrophs in ponds.
The fact of the feed eaten by the shrimp are absorbed 20-40%, 10-20% excreted through feces, and 40-60% are used for metabolism such as excretion, molting, and maintenance of the body.
Protein listed on the label shrimp feed is crude protein. The protein value is not a fixed value of protein that can be utilized by shrimp. Proteins that can be utilized depending on digestibility, balance and metabolism. Protein is used shrimp for body maintenance, growth, energy to move and adapt, as well as reproduction. Good water quality will improve the efficiency of protein absorption. Therefore, the protein that is retained and converted into shrimp body weight low and irregular.
In addition, the optimum level of protein absorption of feed depends on many factors. Factors influencing that feed composition, quality and type of feed protein, digestibility level of energy, water quality, stocking density, feeding frequency and the type, size and biomass of natural microorganisms in the pond, stage of growth, and etc. To improve the nutrient absorption and durability (immunostimulan) vannamei shrimp’s body, do the addition of feed additives such as PowerLac and vitamin-mineral with the recommended dose. Provision of feed additives do every day with feeding, provision should be done during the day (the highest appetite).
The behavior of shrimp is fed as active feeding animals. Shrimp are always actively eating the substrate at the bottom and waters column of pond. Appropriate environment would maintain their eating habits and growth. Water quality is affected by the pond microorganisms or probiotics. This is why the farmers need to add probiotics regularly to feed or waters pond. Probiotics assist in the process of mineralization, nitrification, outlines the toxic substance (ammonia and nitrite), and prevention of infectious diseases so that the water quality remains good. The value of protein in the feed also determine the value of the C: N ratio waters. Optimally C:N ratio of the pond is 15, so the process heterotroph beneficial bacteria can work well in ponds.
So, the quality of feed is equivalent to the quality of seeds and water quality in determining the success of shrimp aquaculture. Prospects for shrimp aquaculture efficiently and economically be developed along with the production demands of an increasingly large and expensive raw materials feed. Therefore, the industry must find a solution in the use of alternative raw materials in order to replace imported raw materials (such as fishmeal).
Kim Jeong-Dae. 2019. Application of Low Protein Diet for Indonesian Shrimp Farming. National Symposium of Shrimp Vannamei Aquaculture 29-31th January 2019, Banyuwangi.